Tshilidzini Hospital, South Africa
Title: Risk factors for preterm birth in South Africa and Algeria
Jónathan Hernández-Núñez is the Medical Director in Tshilidzini Hospital, South Africa. He is also a Specialist in the field of Gynecology and Obstetrics . His area of interest includes womens helathcare. he completed his master's degree in integral care for women from South Africa. His eminence in the field of Gynecology and Obstetrics helped him to prove his career as an assistant professor and research associate in the corresponding field.
Statement of the Problem: Prematurity continues to be one of the great problems of obstetrics due to the great morbidity and mortality associated with it; a clear prevention strategy to reduce preterm birth rates has not yet been reached. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with preterm delivery. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: A case-control study was conducted at Tshilidzini Hospital in South Africa and Mohamed Golliat Hospital in Algeria between January 2015 and December 2016. The universe was 97 patients with preterm delivery and the initial sample was matched with the universe for the group of cases, also a control group of 291 patients with term delivery were selected, all randomly selected from a list of random numbers following a 3:1 ratio; the sample was definitively made up of 89 cases and 255 controls. The data were collected through a form filled by review of the obstetric and hospital files; statistically we used the frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation, percentage, Ji square test, Student's test and Odds Ratio. Findings: The risk factors for preterm delivery were the maternal age of 35 years or older (OR = 2.94), single marital status (OR = 2.98), maternal obesity at the beginning of pregnancy (OR = 1.78 ), previous history of chronic hypertension (OR = 3.77), seven or more prior abortions (OR = 7.17), previous preterm delivery (OR = 3.46), preeclampsia-eclampsia (OR=5.99), urinary tract infection (OR = 3.41), multiple pregnancy (OR = 5.00) and oligohydramnios (OR = 6.06); not the cultural level, the toxic habits, the parity, nor the short interpregnancy intervals. Conclusion & Significance: There are multiple risk factors that predispose to preterm delivery and contribute to increase perinatal morbidity and mortality, many of which are susceptible to be modified from primary health care.